India India

India maintains its strong performance from last year’s CCPI, holding 10th place.

India’s performance was rated high in the GHG Emissions, Energy Use, and Climate Policy categories, and medium in Renewable Energy. The subcontinent is already on track to meet its 2030 emissions target (which is compatible with a well-below-2°C scenario), close to achieving its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) target of a 40% share for non-fossil fuel installed power capacity by 2030, and on course for a targeted 33–35% reduction in energy intensity by the same year.

Contributing to India’s strong performance this year, the CCPI country experts highlight the considerable improvement of renewables targets and the focus on implementation and achievement of NDC targets. The experts also stress India’s ambitious renewable energy policies, such as its targets of renewable electricity capacity of 450 GW and a 30% electric vehicle share by 2030. The experts do, however, believe some policies are disjointed and missing detail on implementation and long-term targets. Meanwhile, considerably more can be done to promote growth of solar (notably, as mentioned, Renewable Energy was the only category not rated high). No Indian states have announced a clear coal phase-out. In fact, the pipeline of proposed coal power plant development is the world’s second largest and one of the few that have increased since 2015. There have been initiatives to promote more electric vehicles in the transport sector, and the experts demand expansion and better infrastructure of such vehicles.

Although India receives an overall high performance, the experts argue that the country should set an explicit net zero target for 2050 and leverage its domestic success on renewables and emissions intensity into international initiatives. Additionally, more could be done to strengthen policies on climate vulnerability, adaptation, and resilience building. Equity and social development should also feature more strongly in the energy transition.

The following national experts agreed to be mentioned as contributors for this year’s CCPI: Ranjan Panda (Combat Climate Change Network); Sanjay Vashist (CAN South Asia); Shruti Neelakantan (Dublin City University); Srinivas Krishnaswamy (Vasudha Foundation)

Technical note: how to read the target comparison graph

The graph above shows the development of a country over the past years compared with its Paris compatible pathway and 2030 target. For all three quantitative categories of the CCPI, this visualisation gives an overview of where a country is right now, where it would need to be to fulfil the Paris Agreement promises and where it aims to be in 2030.

For GHG emissions per capita, the data includes LULUCF, as used for the emissions per capita indicator. This leads to the vast changes in emissions of some countries with high forest coverage. The calculation of individual country target pathways is based on the common but differentiated convergence approach (CDC). It is based on the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities” laid forth in the Framework Convention on Climate Change. All Annex I countries therefore have a decreasing pathway from 1990 onwards, starting at that year’s emissions. 60 years later, in 2050, these countries are expected to reach net zero emissions. All other countries, which did not reach the level of global average emissions in 1990, are allowed to increase emissions until the average is reached. But by latest 2015 these countries, too, have decreasing pathways and 60 years to reach net zero. These pathways start from the global average.

The Renewable Energy data is given in per cent of Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES) and includes hydro energy, consistent with the respective CCPI indicator. As global distribution of Renewables (especially solar and wind) only started in the 2000s, the pathways in this category start in 2010. All countries have an equal goal: 100% Renewables in 2050, each starting from its 2010 value.

For Energy Use the Primary Energy Supply per capita is shown. All pathways for this category start at country’s 1990 values and meet at global average of 80 gigajoules per capita in TPES. For 2°C and 1.5°C scenarios, a decrease in emissions by reducing the (growth in) energy use is as crucial as deploying renewable (or other low-carbon) technologies. The IPCC carried out a scenario comparison using a large number of integrated assessment models. From the scenarios available, we observe that the total amount of global energy use in 2050 has to be roughly the same level or a bit higher than it is today, with a margin of uncertainty. At the same time population will grow slightly between today and 2050. We therefore pragmatically chose the well-below-2° compatible benchmark to be “same energy use per capita in 2050 as the current global average”, which is 80 gigajoules per capita in TPES.

Find out more about the CCPI