Brazil ranks 38th this year’s CCPI, dropping five places from last year’s CCPI and from an overall medium to a low rating. The country shows a mixed performance across the CCPI categories, with a high rating for Renewable Energy and Energy Use but low for GHG Emissions and very low for Climate Policy.
Deforestation Policies are underfunded and poorly enforced
Institutions that play a major role in environmental policy have suffered attacks and funding cuts from the federal government since the president entered office in 2019. The CCPI experts are worried that current trends to expand Brazil’s fossil fuel use, which has intensified since the energy crisis emerged, caused by the aggressive Russian war against Ukraine. Brazil is among the 20 countries with the largest developed oil reserves. It also plans to increase its gas and coal production by over 5% by 2030. This is incompatible with the 1.5°C target.
While Brazil has a goal of zero illegal deforestation by 2028, deforestation has, in fact, risen to a record high since 2006, along with wildfires in the Amazon and tropical savanna (Cerrado) biomes, under the current federal government. Existing policies in the country are often underfunded and poorly enforced. The CCPI experts criticise the current government’s reversal of achievements in environmental laws and regulation.
Brazil’s share of renewables increased
Brazil was able to increase its share of renewables, such as by rapid growth of wind energy, as well as solar energy, though at a slower pace. The CCPI experts note that this outcome has actually come with human rights violations against local people and Indigenous groups. Brazil is also highly reliant on hydro power, which is vulnerable to droughts and the risk of increased use of fossil electricity. This happened in 2021 through the beginning of 2022 due to a 91-year record-breaking drought in the country’s central-western and south-eastern regions.
Under President Bolsonaro, Brazil’s performance has declined significantly in the last CCPI rankings. It is expected that the newly elected President Lula will increase the country’s climate policy ambition. Protecting the Amazon and phasing out fossil fuel production are key measures in this respect.
The following national experts agreed to be mentioned as contributors for this year’s CCPI:
- Marcio Astrini, Claudio Angelo & Stela Herschmann (Climate Observatory Executive Secretary)
- Shigueo Watanabe Jr (Instituto Climainfo)
- Carlos Nobre (University of Sao Paulo’s Institute for Advanced Studies)
- Tercio Ambrizzi (University of São Paulo)