Colombia Colombia

Colombia is among three new countries added in this year’s CCPI. It debuts at 25th, with an overall medium rating.

Colombia shows mixed ratings among the four main CCPI categories. In Energy Use, it earns a high rating, while it receives a medium for GHG Emissions and Climate Policy. In the Renewable Energy category, it ranks as low.

Colombia’s current Nationally Determined Contribution aims to reduce GHG emissions by 51% in 2030 compared to 2014 levels. The Colombian experts welcome this ambitious goal, though they criticize the lack of a financing plan and implementation.

Colombia’s national climate policy has made progress in electric mobility policies and initiatives for energy efficiency in the industry and building sectors. Energy transition towards renewable energy is underway and there is great potential for wind and solar energy. The country is a big coal producer, and the climate experts demanded a concrete coal phase-out plan. The experts also expressed the need for an energy efficiency standard for vehicles, and for regulation of GHG emissions in the industry sector.

The following national experts agreed to be mentioned as contributors for this year’s CCPI: Maria Laura Rojas, Giovanni Pabón (TRANSFORMA GLOBAL)

Technical note: how to read the target comparison graph

The graph above shows the development of a country over the past years compared with its Paris compatible pathway and 2030 target. For all three quantitative categories of the CCPI, this visualisation gives an overview of where a country is right now, where it would need to be to fulfil the Paris Agreement promises and where it aims to be in 2030.

For GHG emissions per capita, the data includes LULUCF, as used for the emissions per capita indicator. This leads to the vast changes in emissions of some countries with high forest coverage.
The calculation of individual country target pathways is based on the common but differentiated convergence approach (CDC). It is based on the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities” laid forth in the Framework Convention on Climate Change. All Annex I countries therefore have a decreasing pathway from 1990 onwards, starting at that year’s emissions. 60 years later, in 2050, these countries are expected to reach net zero emissions. All other countries, which did not reach the level of global average emissions in 1990, are allowed to increase emissions until the average is reached. But by latest 2015 these countries, too, have decreasing pathways and 60 years to reach net zero. These pathways start from the global average.

The Renewable Energy data is given in per cent of Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES) and includes hydro energy, consistent with the respective CCPI indicator. As global distribution of Renewables (especially solar and wind) only started in the 2000s, the pathways in this category start in 2010. All countries have an equal goal: 100% Renewables in 2050, each starting from its 2010 value.

For Energy Use the Primary Energy Supply per capita is shown. All pathways for this category start at country’s 1990 values and meet at global average of 80 gigajoules per capita in TPES.
For 2°C and 1.5°C scenarios, a decrease in emissions by reducing the (growth in) energy use is as crucial as deploying renewable (or other low-carbon) technologies. The IPCC carried out a scenario comparison using a large number of integrated assessment models. From the scenarios available, we observe that the total amount of global energy use in 2050 has to be roughly the same level or a bit higher than it is today, with a margin of uncertainty. At the same time population will grow slightly between today and 2050. We therefore pragmatically chose the well-below-2° compatible benchmark to be “same energy use per capita in 2050 as the current global average”, which is 80 gigajoules per capita in TPES.