Spain Spain

Spain recovers to a rank of 34th after last year’s seven-notch drop, but still only shows a low performance.

The country was able to improve its low ratings to medium in the GHG Emissions and Renewable Energy categories. It improved its National Climate Policy indicator from last year’s CCPI, although this still rates low.

The CCPI experts welcomed Spain’s Climate Change and Energy Transition Act, approved in May 2021, for setting a new strategic framework for energy sector transformation. In the renewable energy sector, the experts criticise the lack of planning for quick deployment of renewable capacity and the strong barriers that remain for ‘prosumers’ (producers and consumers) due to insufficient support policy.

Apart from this, however, the experts note a lack of ambition in Spain’s national climate policy, especially in the weak 2030 targets. This assessment is reflected in the medium and low ratings in the CCPI target indicators in GHG Emissions, Renewable Energy, and Energy Use, showing that Spain’s 2030 targets are not in line with a well-below-2°C pathway. The experts also criticise the absence of a governmental commitment to phase out fossil fuel subsidies.

The following national experts agreed to be mentioned as contributors for this year’s CCPI:  Begoña María-Tomé Gil (ISTAS);  Josep Puig i Boix (Group of Scientists and Engineers for a Non Nuclear Future)

Technical note: how to read the target comparison graph

The graph above shows the development of a country over the past years compared with its Paris compatible pathway and 2030 target. For all three quantitative categories of the CCPI, this visualisation gives an overview of where a country is right now, where it would need to be to fulfil the Paris Agreement promises and where it aims to be in 2030.

For GHG emissions per capita, the data includes LULUCF, as used for the emissions per capita indicator. This leads to the vast changes in emissions of some countries with high forest coverage.
The calculation of individual country target pathways is based on the common but differentiated convergence approach (CDC). It is based on the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities” laid forth in the Framework Convention on Climate Change. All Annex I countries therefore have a decreasing pathway from 1990 onwards, starting at that year’s emissions. 60 years later, in 2050, these countries are expected to reach net zero emissions. All other countries, which did not reach the level of global average emissions in 1990, are allowed to increase emissions until the average is reached. But by latest 2015 these countries, too, have decreasing pathways and 60 years to reach net zero. These pathways start from the global average.

The Renewable Energy data is given in per cent of Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES) and includes hydro energy, consistent with the respective CCPI indicator. As global distribution of Renewables (especially solar and wind) only started in the 2000s, the pathways in this category start in 2010. All countries have an equal goal: 100% Renewables in 2050, each starting from its 2010 value.

For Energy Use the Primary Energy Supply per capita is shown. All pathways for this category start at country’s 1990 values and meet at global average of 80 gigajoules per capita in TPES.
For 2°C and 1.5°C scenarios, a decrease in emissions by reducing the (growth in) energy use is as crucial as deploying renewable (or other low-carbon) technologies. The IPCC carried out a scenario comparison using a large number of integrated assessment models. From the scenarios available, we observe that the total amount of global energy use in 2050 has to be roughly the same level or a bit higher than it is today, with a margin of uncertainty. At the same time population will grow slightly between today and 2050. We therefore pragmatically chose the well-below-2° compatible benchmark to be “same energy use per capita in 2050 as the current global average”, which is 80 gigajoules per capita in TPES.