Hungary Hungary

Hungary continues its downward trend, falling from 50th to 53rd in this year’s CCPI, marking a very low overall performance.

The country remains low in the GHG Emissions category, while its overall ranking is reflected in the Energy Use and Climate Policy categories, showing drops of 15 and six spots, respectively.

The CCPI national experts note a substantially decreased performance in the country’s climate policy at the national level. They point to a wide gap between the mandatory EU target of reducing GHG emissions 55% by 2030, and a national target of a 40% reduction. In light of this, the experts call for greater ambition across all relevant policy areas. In renewable energy, Hungary’s government has a high target for photovoltaics and has already recorded an increase of energy supply. The situation differs, however, for wind power, as further expansion has been blocked per law since 2016. Closure of the country’s last coal plant by the end of 2025, in turn, was welcomed. The country’s total energy supply is now largely dependent on natural gas, nuclear, and oil.

Hungary is among the bottom 10 countries for the CCPI’s International Climate Policy indicator. The country’s regressive role regarding the EU, in not only holding back the EU’s ambition in EU negotiations but also hindering the EU from taking proactive positions in international negotiations, plays a central role in the experts’ evaluation in this area.

The following national experts agreed to be mentioned as contributors for this year’s CCPI: Adam Harmat (WWF), Dr. Béla Munkácsy (ELTE University), András Lukács (Clean Air Action Group), Judit Szegő

Technical note: how to read the target comparison graph

The graph above shows the development of a country over the past years compared with its Paris compatible pathway and 2030 target. For all three quantitative categories of the CCPI, this visualisation gives an overview of where a country is right now, where it would need to be to fulfil the Paris Agreement promises and where it aims to be in 2030.

For GHG emissions per capita, the data includes LULUCF, as used for the emissions per capita indicator. This leads to the vast changes in emissions of some countries with high forest coverage.
The calculation of individual country target pathways is based on the common but differentiated convergence approach (CDC). It is based on the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities” laid forth in the Framework Convention on Climate Change. All Annex I countries therefore have a decreasing pathway from 1990 onwards, starting at that year’s emissions. 60 years later, in 2050, these countries are expected to reach net zero emissions. All other countries, which did not reach the level of global average emissions in 1990, are allowed to increase emissions until the average is reached. But by latest 2015 these countries, too, have decreasing pathways and 60 years to reach net zero. These pathways start from the global average.

The Renewable Energy data is given in per cent of Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES) and includes hydro energy, consistent with the respective CCPI indicator. As global distribution of Renewables (especially solar and wind) only started in the 2000s, the pathways in this category start in 2010. All countries have an equal goal: 100% Renewables in 2050, each starting from its 2010 value.

For Energy Use the Primary Energy Supply per capita is shown. All pathways for this category start at country’s 1990 values and meet at global average of 80 gigajoules per capita in TPES.
For 2°C and 1.5°C scenarios, a decrease in emissions by reducing the (growth in) energy use is as crucial as deploying renewable (or other low-carbon) technologies. The IPCC carried out a scenario comparison using a large number of integrated assessment models. From the scenarios available, we observe that the total amount of global energy use in 2050 has to be roughly the same level or a bit higher than it is today, with a margin of uncertainty. At the same time population will grow slightly between today and 2050. We therefore pragmatically chose the well-below-2° compatible benchmark to be “same energy use per capita in 2050 as the current global average”, which is 80 gigajoules per capita in TPES.