Norway Norway

Norway moves up two spots and now ranks 6th in the CCPI 2022, with an overall high rating.

Norway is the first country to receive a very high rating in the Renewable Energy category in the CCPI. There is a share of over 50% renewables in energy supply and the other indicators for renewable energy all rate high or very high. Norway earns high ratings in the GHG Emissions and Climate Policy categories. The country, however, remains a low performer in Energy Use; especially in the indicator for Energy Use per Capita – compared to a well-below-2°C benchmark, in which it is rated very low.

Norway’s national climate policy excels in its high carbon pricing and in subsidies for electric vehicles. Fossil fuels for heating buildings have been phased out from last year, though the CCPI experts say there should be greater ambition towards energy efficiency in buildings. In the previous year, Norway submitted an updated Nationally Determined Contribution aimed at cutting emissions by at least 50% by 2030, seeking 55% below 1990 levels.

Norway’s relatively good national policies are contradicted by its oil and gas exports. Not only is Norway the biggest oil and gas producer in Western Europe, but the country is also continuing subsidies for exploration and production in the future. Exploration sites for oil drilling include regions in the Arctic. Almost all domestically produced oil and gas is exported, and this contribution is not counted in Norway’s balances within the CCPI methodology. The experts see no efforts by the Norwegian government to become part of initiatives to cut fossil fuel production (e.g. Beyond Oil & Gas Alliance). The experts demand that Norway increasingly join efforts to reduce oil and gas production and support climate finance strategies.

The following national experts agreed to be mentioned as contributors for this year’s CCPI:  Aled Dilwyn Fisher (Friends of the Earth Norway (Naturvernforbundet));  Christoffer Klyve, Johan Reinertsen, Ida Thomasson (FIOH)

Technical note: how to read the target comparison graph

The graph above shows the development of a country over the past years compared with its Paris compatible pathway and 2030 target. For all three quantitative categories of the CCPI, this visualisation gives an overview of where a country is right now, where it would need to be to fulfil the Paris Agreement promises and where it aims to be in 2030.

For GHG emissions per capita, the data includes LULUCF, as used for the emissions per capita indicator. This leads to the vast changes in emissions of some countries with high forest coverage.
The calculation of individual country target pathways is based on the common but differentiated convergence approach (CDC). It is based on the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities” laid forth in the Framework Convention on Climate Change. All Annex I countries therefore have a decreasing pathway from 1990 onwards, starting at that year’s emissions. 60 years later, in 2050, these countries are expected to reach net zero emissions. All other countries, which did not reach the level of global average emissions in 1990, are allowed to increase emissions until the average is reached. But by latest 2015 these countries, too, have decreasing pathways and 60 years to reach net zero. These pathways start from the global average.

The Renewable Energy data is given in per cent of Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES) and includes hydro energy, consistent with the respective CCPI indicator. As global distribution of Renewables (especially solar and wind) only started in the 2000s, the pathways in this category start in 2010. All countries have an equal goal: 100% Renewables in 2050, each starting from its 2010 value.

For Energy Use the Primary Energy Supply per capita is shown. All pathways for this category start at country’s 1990 values and meet at global average of 80 gigajoules per capita in TPES.
For 2°C and 1.5°C scenarios, a decrease in emissions by reducing the (growth in) energy use is as crucial as deploying renewable (or other low-carbon) technologies. The IPCC carried out a scenario comparison using a large number of integrated assessment models. From the scenarios available, we observe that the total amount of global energy use in 2050 has to be roughly the same level or a bit higher than it is today, with a margin of uncertainty. At the same time population will grow slightly between today and 2050. We therefore pragmatically chose the well-below-2° compatible benchmark to be “same energy use per capita in 2050 as the current global average”, which is 80 gigajoules per capita in TPES.