Norway Norway

Norway falls four ranks to 10th in this year’s CCPI, still receiving an overall high rating. Norway rates very high in the Renewable Energy category, with its share of over 50% renewables in energy supply. Nevertheless, the country earns a medium for GHG Emissions and Climate Policy and very low for Energy Use.

Norway is frontrunner in international climate policy

The CCPI country experts recognise the country’s ambitious and effective climate policies. Norway has a very high share of renewables, mostly through hydropower. There is a high carbon tax for multiple sectors and support for electric vehicles. The experts also acknowledge the role Norway plays in international climate policy. It is a frontrunner in climate negotiations and relatively supportive in climate finance.

However, the experts criticise other areas of Norway’s climate politics. There is a lack of long-term strategies for specific policies and of long-term targets. Strategies to meet energy efficiency targets are missing and the country lags in decarbonising the industry sector. While other industries have cut emissions by 40% since 1990, the petroleum industry has increased to current levels almost 50% above those in 1990.

Indigenous rights must be in the centre of renewables expansion

The experts’ strongest criticism regards Norway’s oil and gas exploration and exports. The country continues to expand oil and gas extraction, including in the Arctic. There is no phase-out plan for oil and gas extraction.

The experts demand a just transition away from oil and gas extraction in Norway. Despite the country’s high ranking in the CCPI, Norway is among the 20 countries with the largest developed oil and gas reserves. It also plans to increase its gas production by over 5% by 2030. This is incompatible with the 1.5°C target.

An additional topic the experts raised is a Norwegian Supreme Court rule that decided two wind power fields built in the Trøndelag region violate the indigenous rights of the Sámi people and the livelihoods of the local reindeer herders. Mining waste dumping in fjords is also affecting Sámi rights.

Key Outcomes

  • Norway falls four ranks to 10th, still receiving an overall high rating
  • The country is a frontrunner in international climate policy
  • The experts demand a just transition away from oil and gas extraction

CCPI experts

The following national experts agreed to be mentioned as contributors for this year’s CCPI:

Key Indicators

CCPI 2023: Target comparison

How to read the target comparison graph

The graph above shows the development of a country over the past years compared with its Paris-compatible pathway and 2030 target. For all three quantitative categories of the CCPI, this visualisation gives an overview of where a country is right now, where it would need to be to fulfil the Paris Agreement promises and where it aims to be in 2030.

GHG Emissions per Capita

These data include LULUCF, as used for the emissions per capita indicator. This leads to the vast changes in emissions of some countries with high forest coverage.

Calculation of individual country target pathways is based on the common but differentiated convergence approach (CDC). It is based on the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities” laid forth in the Framework Convention on Climate Change. All Annex I countries therefore have a decreasing pathway from 1990 onwards, starting at that year’s emissions. 60 years later, in 2050, these countries are expected to reach net zero emissions.

All other countries, which did not reach the level of global average emissions in 1990, are allowed to increase emissions until the average is reached. But by latest 2015 these countries, too, have decreasing pathways and 60 years to reach net zero. These pathways start from the global average.

Renewable Energy

These data are given in per cent of Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES) and includes hydro energy, consistent with the respective CCPI indicator. As global distribution of Renewables (especially solar and wind) only started in the 2000s, the pathways in this category start in 2010. All countries have an equal goal: 100% Renewables in 2050, each starting from its 2010 value.

Energy Use

Here, the Primary Energy Supply per capita is shown. All pathways for this category start at country’s 1990 values and meet at global average of 80 gigajoules per capita in TPES.

For 2°C and 1.5°C scenarios, a decrease in emissions by reducing the (growth in) energy use is as crucial as deploying renewable (or other low-carbon) technologies. The IPCC carried out a scenario comparison using a large number of integrated assessment models.

From the scenarios available, we observe that the total amount of global energy use in 2050 has to be roughly the same level or a bit higher than it is today, with a margin of uncertainty. At the same time population will grow slightly between today and 2050. We therefore pragmatically chose the well-below-2° compatible benchmark to be “same energy use per capita in 2050 as the current global average”, which is 80 gigajoules per capita in TPES.