Pakistan ranks 30th overall, placing it among the medium performers.
Pakistan receives a low in the Climate Policy category, a very low in Renewable Energy, and a high in GHG Emissions and Energy Use.
Pakistan is one of the countries that are most vulnerable to extreme weather events caused and/or exacerbated by the climate crisis, such as the devastating floods in 2022. The country updated its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) in 2021; this includes a conditional target of reducing projected emissions by 50% by 2030, with 15% coming from domestic sources and 35% from international grants. Pakistan also aims to shift to 60% renewable energy and 30% electric vehicles by 2030 and to completely ban imported coal.
Lack of coordination between government institutions
One of the main issues the CCPI country experts identified is a lack of coordination between government institutions, which hampers policy implementation. The experts describe a disconnect between federal and provincial actors and an unclear division of responsibilities.
The experts also report that the existing policy frameworks are not aligned with the realities on the ground that shape climate impacts in Pakistan. Specifically, there have been no serious efforts to mention the phase-out of fossil fuels in relevant policy documents. There is also no mechanism for keeping account of emissions from the corporate sector. Pakistan also faces problems with dumping of the globally banned and highly hazardous chemicals known as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), as POP storage sites still need to be decontaminated.
Another point of criticism from the experts is that, while the expansion of renewable energy has had mostly positive impacts, in some cases, it has raised social justice issues. For example, people have not been compensated for giving up their land for dam and hydropower plant construction. It is worth noting that traditional biomass is not included in the CCPI’s accounting of renewable energy. Pakistan still has a significant share of traditional biomass in its renewable energy supply. Pakistan´s government also does not provide sufficient information to allow for transparency. Our experts note that, despite related laws such as the Right of Access to Information, the Ministry of Climate Change avoids providing required information and evades being accountable.
Leadership during the setup of the Loss and Damage Fund
Internationally, our experts take a positive view of Pakistan’s assuming a leadership role during the setup of the Loss and Damage Fund. Domestically, Pakistan is developing long-term low-carbon development strategies with support from GIZ and other actors, including the Pathways 2050 platform, UNDP, and the World Bank. Robust afforestation programmes are also in place.
To respond to the above problems, our experts suggest several ways to improve implementation. They stress the importance of making policies more inclusive, transparent, and accountable. The role of women in natural resource management should be strengthened, and local knowledge should be incorporated into new technologies to scale up nature-based solutions. There should be a focus on sustainable land management practices, and the government should increase its support for decentralised renewable energy systems.
The policy framework should also be more consistent, and policies need to be realistic and implementable. A long-term vision for reducing emissions needs to be developed and there should be clear GHG reduction targets in the 2050 NDCs. Improved cooperation between different levels of government would be a step in the right direction.
- Pakistan ranks 30th overall, placing it among the medium performers
- No serious efforts to mention the phase-out of fossil fuels in relevant policy documents
- Key demands: development of a long-term vision for reducing emissions, clear GHG reduction targets in the 2050 NDCs, more support for decentralised renewable energy systems, and improved cooperation between government institutions
The following national experts agreed to be mentioned as contributors for this year’s CCPI: