Philippines Philippines

The Philippines, as one of three new entrants in this year’s CCPI, ranks 23rd, with a medium rating.

In the four main CCPI categories, the Philippines rates low in Climate Policy, medium in Renewable Energy, and high in GHG Emissions and Energy Use.

The Philippines receives a low rating in the National Climate Policy indicator. In 2021, the Department of Energy has, however, defined some new regulations for reducing GHG emissions. It seeks a renewable energy target of a 35% share by 2030, a higher renewable portfolio standard, and a moratorium on coal power plant development. Nevertheless, the moratorium will not affect coal projects over 7 MW that are committed to be built by 2030. Additionally, no policy on coal phase-out is in place.

Regarding energy use, the National Economic Development Authority approved the Philippine Urban Mobility Program in 2020, which prioritises multi-modal low-carbon public transport in urban cities. In April 2021, the Philippines finally submitted its first Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), with a 75% GHG emissions reduction sought by 2030 compared with 2010 levels. CCPI experts note this target is ambitious, as is the government’s plan to reduce absolute GHG emissions from there forward. Criticism does, however, remain regarding this target. First, there is no clear plan for how to achieve the goal. The current climate policies are in fact not ambitious enough to reach the NDC target. Furthermore, the experts criticise that only 2.71% of the NDC target remains unconditional. The rest will be pursued in the case of international finance support.

Overall, the main problems concerning climate policy performance in the Philippines are, according to the experts, not just ambition, but apparently the delayed or non-implemented provisions. Additional to the presence of more ambitious climate policies, they demand strong and swift implementation.

The following national experts agreed to be mentioned as contributors for this year’s CCPI: Antonio Gabriel La Viña (Energy Collaboratory Director, Manila Observatory), Riedo Panaligan (Center for Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technology), Angela Ibay (WWF Philippines), Aya de Leon (Parabukas), John Leo Algo (Living Laudato Si’ Philippines), Rodne Galicha (Aksyon Klima Pilipinas Network), Bert Dalusung, Golda Hilario, Mila Jude & Pete Maniego (Institute for Climate and Sustainable Cities (ICSC)

Technical note: how to read the target comparison graph

The graph above shows the development of a country over the past years compared with its Paris compatible pathway and 2030 target. For all three quantitative categories of the CCPI, this visualisation gives an overview of where a country is right now, where it would need to be to fulfil the Paris Agreement promises and where it aims to be in 2030.

For GHG emissions per capita, the data includes LULUCF, as used for the emissions per capita indicator. This leads to the vast changes in emissions of some countries with high forest coverage.
The calculation of individual country target pathways is based on the common but differentiated convergence approach (CDC). It is based on the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities” laid forth in the Framework Convention on Climate Change. All Annex I countries therefore have a decreasing pathway from 1990 onwards, starting at that year’s emissions. 60 years later, in 2050, these countries are expected to reach net zero emissions. All other countries, which did not reach the level of global average emissions in 1990, are allowed to increase emissions until the average is reached. But by latest 2015 these countries, too, have decreasing pathways and 60 years to reach net zero. These pathways start from the global average.

The Renewable Energy data is given in per cent of Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES) and includes hydro energy, consistent with the respective CCPI indicator. As global distribution of Renewables (especially solar and wind) only started in the 2000s, the pathways in this category start in 2010. All countries have an equal goal: 100% Renewables in 2050, each starting from its 2010 value.

For Energy Use the Primary Energy Supply per capita is shown. All pathways for this category start at country’s 1990 values and meet at global average of 80 gigajoules per capita in TPES.
For 2°C and 1.5°C scenarios, a decrease in emissions by reducing the (growth in) energy use is as crucial as deploying renewable (or other low-carbon) technologies. The IPCC carried out a scenario comparison using a large number of integrated assessment models. From the scenarios available, we observe that the total amount of global energy use in 2050 has to be roughly the same level or a bit higher than it is today, with a margin of uncertainty. At the same time population will grow slightly between today and 2050. We therefore pragmatically chose the well-below-2° compatible benchmark to be “same energy use per capita in 2050 as the current global average”, which is 80 gigajoules per capita in TPES.