Turkey Turkey

Turkey drops nine ranks in the CCPI to 56th, making it is a very low-performing country.

The country receives a medium ranking in the Renewable Energy category, low in GHG Emissions and Energy Use, and very low in Climate Policy.

Turkey plans to increase its GHG emissions until 2038 and announced 2053 as its net-zero target date. The CCPI country experts emphasise that the main shortcoming of the policy to reduce GHG emissions is that it is calculated with in a business-as-usual scenario (BAU) and therefore does not aim to reduce net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Turkey updated its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) in April 2023, but the experts indicate it is not in line with the country’s net-zero vision and the Paris Agreement’s 1.5 C target.

No fossil fuel phase-out in sight

Turkey still heavily depends on fossil fuels for energy. It has no fossil fuel phase-out policy and is still conducting gas and oil exploration in different regions. It also continues to subsidise fossil fuels. The CCPI country experts call for an immediate end to fossil fuel exploration and extraction and the closure of old coal-fired power plants. They urge for the development of transition plans for coal regions, and with a fair perspective.

Official IEA data show that the share of renewables has increased slightly, but needs tripling to be compatible with 1.5°C. The Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources published a National Energy Plan in January 2023. This plan projects high levels of renewable capacity, particularly solar. And while it envisions a gradual reduction in the share of fossil fuels in electricity generation, the experts criticise it for including expanded nuclear power. Current legislation also does not favour decentralised renewable energy production, resulting in most projects being centralised and large-scale. The targets for wind energy are not ambitious and the plan does not include a coal phase-out. The experts suggest mandating installation of solar panels on the roofs of public service infrastructure, automobile parking, and open marketplaces. Energy co-operatives should also be regulated to make it easier to set up and maintain them, with fewer legal burdens and obstacles.

Huge increase in deforestation

Regarding energy efficiency, the experts paint a mixed picture. The National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (2017–2023) aims to reduce primary energy consumption by 14% by 2023. The plan expires at the end of 2023, but the energy efficiency target seems to have been missed, partly due to the electricity distribution network’s inefficiency. Progress has been made in rail infrastructure, as large investments in developing high-speed railways are promising. Production of the country’s first electric car also began in 2023. The experts want to see energy efficiency given a higher priority in energy policy.

Turkey’s agricultural and forestry sectors suffer from a lack of protective legislation. The experts report that current forestry policy treats forests as production areas rather than as natural assets to be protected. The growing timber industry is leading to a huge increase in deforestation, even in protected areas such as national parks. This poses a major threat to carbon sinks. The experts therefore call for the proportion of protected land and marine areas to be increased to at least 30% by 2030, in line with the Global Biodiversity Framework.

The experts offer several policy recommendations. They want to see the NDC revised with an ambitious absolute reduction target. A coal phase-out policy should be adopted and coal subsidies should be transferred to a renewable energy support scheme. Policy instruments for decarbonisation of all sectors should be introduced. And a more transparent and participatory approach should be adopted in the climate change bill currently being drafted.

Key Outcomes

  • Turkey drops nine ranks in the CCPI to 56th, making it a very low-performing country
  • The CCPI country experts call for an immediate end to fossil fuel exploration and extraction and the closure of old coal-fired power plants
  • Key demands: Revised NDC with an ambitions reduction target, coal-phase out policy and the introduction of policy instruments for the decarbonisation of all sectors


CCPI experts

Key Indicators

CCPI 2024: Target comparison